Yemeni police and government-backed snipers fired on thousands of protesters on Tuesday in the capital, Sana’a. At least seven protesters were killed and scores of others were injured, said one demonstrator who was at the front of the rally. He said dozens were arrested.
Fighting between troops loyal to Yemen’s embattled leader and rival forces on Monday killed at least 18 people, including eight supporters of a powerful tribal chief who defected to the opposition in March.
The pre-dawn fighting, the worst in the capital Sana’a in weeks, has revived fears of civil war in the strategically located nation on the southern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Mortars, rockets and heavy machine-guns were used in the hours-long battle in the northern sector of the city close to the international airport, according to The Associated Press.
A series of blasts shook the city for hours, forcing residents in many parts to take shelter in basements. The fighting continued throughout the night, briefly stopped for the dawn prayers and then resumed. It ceased by sunrise.
Many of the city’s stores were shuttered on Monday in anticipation of renewed fighting, but the day passed without any major violence. However, traffic was lighter than usual and residents hurried home before sunset.
Karman criticizes Arab League
Yemen’s Nobel winner activist Tawakkul Karman criticized the stand of the Arab League towards the crisis in her country, Al Arabiya reported.
Karman described the Arab League stand as “negative” and said that there is no reason that justifies the discussions over Syria while neglecting Yemen.
She called on the Arab League to “listen to the voices of people” in each of Yemen and Syria.
The fighting has deepened fears that Yemen, the Arab world’s poorest nation, is headed for civil war, a grim prospect for the nation’s conflict-fatigued 23 million people.
Firearms have traditionally been readily available in Yemen, where owning a rifle is a rite of passage for most young males. Many Yemenis also have military experience from serving in the army and fighting in the nation’s many domestic wars. With central authority ranging from weak to nonexistent outside Sana’a, it is not uncommon for tribesmen to have heavy machine-guns, anti-aircraft guns, mortars and rocket propelled grenades.
President Ali Abdullah Saleh is accused by many Yemenis of pushing the country into civil war by tenaciously clinging to power in the face of eight months of massive protests across the country, the defection to the opposition of key tribal and military allies and mounting international pressure on him to step down. He has so far balked at a U.S.-backed plan proposed by Saudi Arabia and its five smaller allies in the Gulf Cooperation Council to hand over power to his deputy and step down in exchange for immunity.
U.S. and Saudi fears
A civil war would significantly hurt efforts by Washington and Riyadh to fight Yemen’s dangerous al-Qaeda branch and could turn the mountainous nation into a global haven for militants just a short distance away from the vast oil fields of the Gulf and the key shipping lanes in the Arabian and Red seas going to and coming from the Suez Canal.
“All signs suggest that we are headed toward civil war if things continue down this path,” said Tawfeeq al-Sanabani, a university lecturer and a political activist. “People don’t want it and we are praying that something will alter the equation and we don't have one,” he told AP.
Already, the city is dissected into sectors under the control of three forces: pro-government troops, renegade soldiers from the 1st Armored Division and tribal gunmen. Many streets are deemed too dangerous to go into either because rival forces are deployed at close proximity or because of snipers. Checkpoints staffed by armed men from all three factions have multiplied over the months. The city, home to an estimated four million people, empties shortly after midnight.
Maj. Gen. Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, commander of the renegade division, warned of the danger of civil war in a Monday statement in which he called on the international community to force Saleh out of office.
“The madness of this man, his obsession with power, his thirst for revenge and his irresponsible behavior show that he wants to ignite a ruinous civil war that will add to the instability of the region,” said al-Ahmar, a one-time Saleh ally and a veteran of all of Yemen’s domestic wars in the past three decades.
Saleh counters these claims by maintaining that al-Ahmar and the tribal chiefs who turned against him are outlaws who have gone against “constitutional legitimacy” and that they are thirsty for power, not reform.
Rising death toll
A statement by the Ahmar family, which heads Yemen’s most powerful federation of tribes, said eight of its men were killed in the fighting Monday and at least 20 were wounded. The death toll was likely to rise as rescue teams search for bodies under the rubble of structures partially or completely destroyed in the fighting.
Violence in Yemen has surged since Saturday as U.N. Security Council members consider a resolution that “strongly condemns” the government’s human rights violations and urges Saleh to “immediately sign and implement” a peace plan hammered out by neighboring Gulf states that requires him to step down, according to Reuters.
The British drafters of the Yemen resolution, obtained by Reuters, have not circulated it to all 15 U.N. Security Council members yet, council diplomats said. They added that the draft has remained within the hands of the five permanent members because Russia and China have expressed reservations about it.
Russian U.N. Ambassador Vitaly Churkin told reporters last week that Moscow wanted a “balanced” resolution on Yemen but did not elaborate. A British diplomat told reporters on Monday that his delegation hoped to circulate a draft resolution to the full council and put it to a vote “as soon as possible.”
Earlier this month, Russia and China vetoed a European-drafted resolution that would have condemned Syria for its crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators. Western diplomats say they do not expect the Yemen draft to meet the same fate.
Speaking at a meeting of his security and military chiefs in Sana’a, Saleh said Western countries with permanent seats on the Security Council had based their decisions on information gathered solely from the opposition.
Security and medical officials said four civilians caught in the crossfire were killed along with two government troops. At the city center, three people were killed and five were wounded when mortars hit a protest encampment in an intersection dubbed Change Square, the birthplace and epicenter of an eight-month-old popular campaign to topple Saleh, Yemen’s leader of 33 years. Five others were wounded, according to the officials.
Also, a man was killed in the city of Taez and seven were wounded when pro-regime gunmen fired on protesters.
There were no casualty figures from the 1st Armored Division, but Maj-Gen. al-Ahmar said in a statement that 91 of his men were killed and 2,300 wounded in fighting between his troops and pro-regime forces since Saleh returned home from Saudi Arabia Sept. 23.
Saleh was there for nearly four months to treat wounds suffered in an attack on his Sana’a compound in early June.
The officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak to reporters.
The United States and Saudi Arabia, which shares a long and porous border with Yemen, fear that al-Qaeda is taking advantage of the political vacuum to expand its influence.
Islamist militants linked to al Qaeda captured large swathes of southern Abyan province, including regional capital Zinjibar, earlier this year. The Yemeni army last month drove the militants out of Zinjibar, east of a strategic shipping strait through which some 3 million barrels of oil pass daily.